FaHai

2010-12-20

[音乐]柴可夫斯基的歌剧《叶甫盖尼·奥涅金》片段

Filed under: Uncategorized — FaHai @ 1:38 am

感恩节前有一天去参观一个位于波士顿的公司,在依山近林的停车场看见野的火鸡在车之间跑来跑去很好玩儿。我们这里从没有火鸡,后院的一个池塘常有狐狸来喝水,有一对鹿的在母子常在树下过夜。感恩节后一天早上看见远远角落里一堆灰色东西,印象中那边没有大石头,走近一看是一只死鹿, 心头一紧,奇怪从未见过老死蓬蒿的鹿。叫来了Animal Control, 一个老警察,验了伤说是挨了枪,从树林里跑来的。Hunting Season 开始了。好在不久后又看见了那对鹿母子,心里才安了。公司里开会聊天儿,一位说起身边的这些飞禽走兽,说你不能不说这是一个富裕的社会,到处都是肥硕的加拿大野鹅,就没人去抓。

这些天又听了柴可夫斯基的歌剧《叶甫盖尼·奥涅金》片段,到社区图书馆一找,那CD就静静躺在那里。比存在家里还方便,家里的东西常有找不到的。你不能不说这是一个富裕的社会,到处井井有条。

如果你读过普希金的《叶甫盖尼·奥涅金》(当然很少人能象全A生小乐那样读俄文原本,嫉妒),应该记得这个歌剧咏叹调的背景。

从1823年5月到1831年秋,普希金用了八年多的时间,写成了诗体小说《叶甫盖尼·奥涅金》。在八年的写作过程中,普希金写好一章,发表一章,相隔很久后再写下一章。在写作过程中,普希金倾注了自己的精神,带进了自己的生活。“评论家认为奥涅金多少有普希金自己的影子,而这部长诗是普希金的诗体自传。

故事是贵族青年奥涅金,生活奢靡,又接受当时的时代气氛和进步的启蒙思想、受拜伦颂扬自由和个性解放的诗歌的影响,厌倦上流社会空虚无聊的生活,抱着对新的生活的渴望来到乡村,并试图从事农事改革。但是,华而不实的贵族教育没有给予他任何实际工作的能力,好逸恶劳的恶习又在他身上打下了深深的烙印,加之周围地主的非难和反对,奥涅金到头来仍处于无所事事、苦闷和彷徨的境地,在乡下的庄园,他和邻居连斯基及其未婚妻奥尔伽成为好友。奥尔伽的姐姐达吉雅娜纯朴、孤寂,她热烈地爱上了奥涅金 ,并勇敢地写信向他倾诉自己的爱情,奥涅金一番劝说拒绝了她。一次家庭宴会,感到一切都庸俗无聊的奥涅金故意向奥尔伽献殷勤,引起连斯基的愤怒并要求与他决斗,奥涅金在决斗中打死了自己的朋友。追悔莫及之余,奥涅金离开乡下出国漫游。几年后在圣彼得堡一个舞会上,奥涅金和已成为将军夫人的达吉雅娜重逢,发现自己深深爱上了她,但吉雅娜拒绝了他。


奥涅金和连斯基的决斗 俄罗斯画家列宾的画。完成《叶甫盖尼·奥涅金》后六年,普希金自己的生命就结束在同样的决斗中。

普希金决斗去世以后40年,1877年5月,莫斯科大剧院歌手伊利莎维塔·拉芙洛芙斯卡娅(Елизаве́та Андре́евна Лавро́вская)提议柴可夫斯基,基于普希金的《叶甫盖尼·奥涅金》,创作歌剧。柴氏在回忆录中写到,初认为这个主意是难以实现的。但很快柴氏的创作热情被激起,并在开始谱曲前一晚,已经规划好剧情与场景的安排。更在同年6月底几乎完成了全剧三分之二的创作。 至1878年1月全剧的创作完成。柴可夫斯基对奥涅金这个人物并不喜欢,他把全部热情放到达吉雅娜的塑造。第一幕达吉雅娜写信时的场景咏叹调:“让我死去,但先……”(Сцена письма: «Пускай погибну я, но прежде…» ) 是他最重视的一段,也是全剧的高潮。

一开始的前奏深沉广大,逐渐急促高亢,到达难以为继之刻,达吉雅娜的歌声和竖琴如瀑布喷涌而出,

TATIANA
Puskai pogibnu ya, no pryezhde — Let me perish, but first
Ya v oslepitelnoi nadyezhde –let me summon, in dazzling hope,
Blazhenstvo tyomnoye zovu, –bliss as yet unknown.
Ya nyegu zhizni uznayu! — that I shall know all life’s joys!
Ya pyu volshebni yad zhelani! –I drink the magic poison of desire,
Menya preslyeduyut mechti! –I am pursued by dreams:
Vezdye, vezdye peredo mnoi — Everywhere, everywhere I look
Partes moi iskusitel rokovoi! — I see my fatal tempter!
Vezdye, vezdye, on predo mnoyu! –Wherever I look, I see him!

(She writes quickly, but immediately tears up what she has written.)

Nyet, vsyo ne to! Nachnu snachala!… –No, that’s all wrong! I’ll begin again!?

(She reflects, then writes again.)

Akh, shto so mnoi, ya vsya goryu… –Ah, what’s the matter with me? I’m on fire!
Ne znayu, kak nachat! –I don’t know how to begin…

经过上面的一段犹豫徘徊,(2分26秒处) 音乐由木管与乐队对答,形成节奏鲜明的四个段落,好象一扇一扇接连推开的窗户。从中望出去仿佛草原森林,山岳河流,春夏秋冬,日月星辰。达吉雅娜的歌声加进来后,云气一样缭绕在重复的四扇窗间。歌声和乐队似乎各行其事,然后又复归一致。

(She writes. She stops and reads through what she has written.)

“Ya k vam pishu… chevo zhe bole? “ –I write to you—what else can I say?
Shto ya mogu yeshcho skazat’? –What more can I explain?
Tepyer ya znayu, v vashei vole –I know you have the power
Menya prezryenyem nakazat’! –to punish me with your scorn.
No vi, k moyei neschastnoi dole –But you will not desert me
Khot’ kaplyu zhalosti khranya, –and you will find a little pity
Vi ne ostavite menya. –for me in my unhappiness!
Snachala ya molchat’ khotyela; –At first I wanted to remain silent.
Povyerte, moyevo stida –Believe me: my shame
Vi ne uznali b nikogda, –would have remained unknown to you forever,
Nikogda!” –forever!”
O da, klyalas’ ya sokhranit’ v dushe –Oh yes, I had sworn to keep my ardent passion
Priznanye v strasti pilkoi i bezumnoi! –a secret locked within my heart.
Uvi! Ne v silakh ya vladyet’ svoyei dushoi! –But I can no longer subdue my heart!
Pust budet to, shto bit dolzhno so mnoi! –Let fate take its course,
Yemu priznayus ya! Smelyei! On vsyo uznayet! –I’ll confess to him! Courage! Let him know everything!

(She continues to write.)

(4分50秒处) 木管与乐队的对答又一次出现,这次达吉雅娜的歌声从第三扇窗打开时就加了进来,形成一个错位,十分生动。

“Zachem, zachem vi posetili nas? –“Why, oh why did you visit us?
V glushi zabitovo selyenya – In this remote country district
Ya b nikogda ne znala vas, –I should never have met you,
Ne znala b gorkovo muchenya. –I’d never have known these heartaches.
Dushi neopitnoi volnyenya –Time would have soothed the emotions
Smiriv so el vryemenem (kak znat’?) –of the guileless heart and (who knows)
Po syerdtsu ya nashla bi druga, –I might have met someone to my liking,
Bila bi vyernaya supruga –have become a faithful wife
I dobrodyetel’naya mat’…” –and virtuous mother…”

(She sinks into meditation. Suddenly she recovers.)

Drugoi! Nyet, nikomu na svyete –Another!—No, I could not give my
Ne otdola bi syerdtsa ya! –heart to anyone else!
To v vishnem suzhdeno sovyete, –This has been decreed from above,
to volya nyeba: ya tvoya! –Heaven has willed it: I am yours!
Vsya zhizn’ moya bila zalagom –My whole life has been pledged
Svidan’ya vyernovo s toboi; –to this true meeting with you!
Ya znayu, ti mnye poslan bogom –I know that God has sent you to me,
Do groba ti khranitel’ moi! –you are my guardian ’til the grave!
Ti v snovidyen’yakh mnye yavlyalsa, –I saw you in my dreams,
Nezrimi, ti uzh bil mnye mil, –and yet unknown, I loved you!
Tvoi chudni vzglyad menya tomil, –I pined for your wonderful glance!
V dushe tvoi golos razdavalsa. –My soul has listened to your voice
Davno… Nyet eto bil ne son! –for years… No, this was no dream!
Ti chut’ voshol, ya vmig uznala, –The moment you entered, I knew you.
Vsya obomlyela, zapilala, –I swooned, I took fire,
I v mislyakh molvila: vot on! –and I said to myself: It is he!
Vot on! –It is he!
Ne pravda l’, ya tebya slikhala: –Was it not your voice that I heard
Ti govoril so mnoi v tishi, –when you spoke to me in the silence,
Kogda ya byednim pomogala, –when I helped the poor,
Ili molitvoi uslazhdala –or soothed my soul
Tosku dushi? –with prayers?
I v eto samoye mgnovenye –And at this moment,
Ne ti li, miloye vidyenye –was it not the dear vision of you
V prozrachnoi temnotye melknul, –that flashed through the transparent gloom,
Priniknuv tikho k izgolovyu –quietly nestling up to my bedside,
Ne ti l’, s otradoi i y lyubovyu –and with love and happiness
Slova nadyezhdi mnye shepnul? –whispered words of hope to me?

(She approaches the table and again sits down to write. She stops writing and muses thus.)

“Kto ti, moi angel li khranitel’ –“Who are you, my guardian angel
Ili kovarni iskusitel? –or an evil tempter?
Moyi somnyenya razreshi. –Disperse my doubts.
Bit mozhet, eto vsyo pustoye, –Perhaps this is all a vain dream,
Obman neopitnoi dushi, –the deception of an innocent hear,
I suzhdeno sovsyem inoye?” –and mine is to be a different fate?”

(Again she rises and walks about, musing.)

No tak i bit’! Sudbu moyu –Then so be it! My fate
Otnine ya tebye vruchayu, –I confide into your hands,
Pered toboyu slyozi lyu, –and in tears before you
Tvoyei zashchiti umolyayu, –I plead for your protection,
Umolyayu! I beg you for it!
Voobrazi: ya zdyes odna! –Imagine: I am alone here!
Nikto menya ne ponimayet! –No one understands me!
Rassudok moi iznemogayet, –I’m too exhausted to think,
I molcha gibnut’ ya dolzhna! –and I must perish in silence!
Ya zhdu tebya, –I wait for you,
Ya zhdu tebya! Yedinim slovom –I wait for you! With one word
Nadyezhdi serdtsa ozhivi, –you can revive my hopes,
Il’ son tyazholi perervi, –or shatter this dream
Uvi, zasluzhennim ukorom! –with well-merited scorn!

(Suddenly she goes to the table and quickly finishes the letter.)

Konchayu! Strashno perechest’, –I must end…I dare not read it through…
Stidom i strakhom zamirayu, –I could die for shame and fear…
No mnye porukoi chest’ evo, –but your honor is my safeguard,
I smyelo yei sebya vverayu! –and fearlessly I put my trust in it

歌唱家Anna Nertrebco

https://www.haiguinet.com/blog/wp-trackback.php?p=128383

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